Alkaline Batteries Handling Precautions for Safe Use

Carefully read these instructions manual before using alkaline batteries for the first time.

In normal use, alkaline manganese batteries provide a safe and dependable source of power. If they are misused or abused, leakage, heating or explosion in extreme cases may occur. Care must be taken according to the following precautions.
  1. Take care not to touch the chemicals and electrolyte from inside the batteries directly. Since alkaline solution is used in this battery system, there are risks of not only damage to cloth and skin resulting from adhesion of the solution, but also loss of eyesight if the solution gets into the eyes.
    • In case of such an emergency where the solution gets into the eye, wash immediately with plenty of water and receive medical treatment from a doctor.
    • If the solution adheres to the skin and/or clothes, wash with water and consult a doctor.
  2. These batteries are equipped with a mechanism that releases excessive internal pressure to prevent explosion. During charge, short-circuit, and overdischarge of batteries, the internal pressure may rise abnormally and result in electrolyte leakage via venting. However, in extreme circumstances, the vent mechanism may not work normally, and explosion can occur.
  3. In the event of short-circuit, battery surface temperature may rise above 100°C.
  1. Always take care to insert batteries correctly according to the designation of polarity (⊕ and ⊖) on the batteries and the equipment.
    Batteries which are incorrectly placed into equipment may short-circuit, or be charged. This can result in a rapid temperature rise and venting leading to leakage and explosion.
  2. Do not short-circuit batteries.
    When the positive ⊕ and negative ⊖ terminals of batteries come into direct contact with each other via mixing or storing batteries together, short-circuit can occur. If batteries are short-circuited, excess current flows instantaneously, which leads to heat generation, damaging the internal structure of the batteries, and causing risk of electrolyte leakage, explosion, etc.
  3. Do not charge batteries.
    These batteries are not rechargeable. Charging may result in electrolyte leakage and/or damage. If charged, gas can be abnormally generated inside of the cell, resulting in increased internal pressure, which may cause electrolyte leakage and/or damage of cell. If the charging current is excessively large, the cell could be at risk of explosion due to gas generation. When unused cells are charged, the risk of electrolyte leakage, damage, explosion, etc. is especially higher.
  4. Do not overdischarge batteries.
    When a battery is kept connected with an electrical circuit even after the equipment is not in use (due to forgetting to switch off the equipment or possible misuse), the battery will continue to supply energy and reach an overdischarged state. This can result in internal gas generation and electrolyte leakage or explosion. When two or more batteries are connected in series and are overdischarged, the voltage may reach zero or minus volts (polarity change) and such a condition may increase the risk of electrolyte leakage and explosion.
  5. Do not discharge forcibly.
    When batteries are discharged by an external power supply, the battery voltage becomes extremely low. This can cause internal gas generation and it may increase the risk of electrolyte leakage and explosion.
  6. Do not mix batteries.
    When replacing batteries, replace all of them at the same time with new batteries of the same brand and type. When batteries of different kinds are used together, or new and old batteries are used together, some batteries may be overdischarged due to a difference of voltage or capacity. This can result in risk of leakage and explosion.
  7. Exhausted batteries should be immediately removed from the equipment and disposed of.
    When discharged batteries are kept in equipment for extended periods, electrolyte leakage may occur causing damage to the equipment.
  8. Do not heat batteries.
    If batteries are heated, the resin used in the batteries may melt and deform due to temperature rise, and electrolyte leakage and explosion may occur.
  9. Do not directly solder batteries.
    When a battery is directly soldered, it may be damaged by heat. This may result in leakage, explosion, etc.
  10. Do not disassemble batteries.
    Improper disassembly of a battery may result in injury of the fingers, damage to the eyes and skin resulting from leakage of chemicals inside the battery.
  11. Do not deform batteries.
    Batteries should not be dropped, crushed, punctured, or otherwise damaged. Such abuse may result in leakage, heat generation or explosion.
  12. Do not dispose of batteries in fire.
    When batteries are disposed of in fire, the heat build-up may cause explosion.
  13. Do not allow children to replace batteries without adult supervision.
  14. Keep batteries out of the reach of children.
    Keep batteries which are small enough to be swallowed out of the reach of children. In case of ingestion of a cell or battery, seek medical assistance immediately.
  15. Do not modify batteries.
    Modification of batteries may cause blockage of the pressure relief vent mechanism and may increase the risk of explosion.
  16. Store unused batteries in their original packaging and keep them away from metal objects which may short-circuit them.
  17. Remove discharged batteries from equipment.
    Remove batteries from equipment when they do not work, or when a long period of disuse is anticipated (e.g. video cameras, camera flashes, etc.). A battery partially or completely exhausted may be more at risk of leakage than an unused battery.

Precautions during handling, transportation, display, storage, and disposal

  1. Avoid rough handling of battery cartons.
    Rough handling of battery cartons may lead to battery damage and impaired electrical performance and may result in leakage, explosion or heat generation.
  2. Battery cartons should not be stacked in multiple layers (or should not exceed a specified height).
    If too many battery cartons are stacked, the batteries in the cartons at the bottom may become deformed and leak. As a general guide, the height should not exceed 1.5 m for cardboard packs.
  3. Batteries shall be stored in well-ventilated, dry and cool conditions.
    Storage at high temperature and high humidity leads to deterioration of the battery performance and electrolyte leakage. For normal storage, the temperature should be between +10°C and +25°C and never exceed +30°C. Extreme humidity (over 95% RH for example) for sustained periods should be avoided since this is detrimental to both batteries and packaging. Batteries should not be stored near radiators, boilers or in direct sunlight.
  4. When batteries are stored in warehouses or displayed in storefronts, they should not be exposed to direct sunlight or rain water for extended periods.
    Exposure to high temperature may increase performance deterioration and risk of electrolyte leakage. If batteries get wet, their insulation resistance decreases, increasing the risk of self-discharge and generation of rust.
  5. Do not mix unpackaged batteries so as to avoid mechanical damage and/or short-circuit of each other.
    When batteries are mixed together, external short circuit may occur, possibly resulting in physical damage, heat generation, leakage and/ or explosion. To avoid these possible hazards, batteries should be kept in their packaging until use.
  6. In the distribution process such as transportation, display, and storage, practice first in, first out and take care to avoid storage over a long period.
  7. Batteries shall be disposed of in accordance with local regulations.
    For disposal of batteries, insulate terminals with tape to prevent external short circuit resulting from terminal shape, such as 9V prismatic batteries.

Battery compartment guidelines

  1. Technical Liaison
    It is recommended that companies producing battery-powered equipment should maintain close liaison with the battery industry. The capabilities of existing batteries should be taken into account at design inception. Whenever possible, the battery type selected should be one included in IEC 60086-2. The equipment should be permanently marked with the IEC designation, grade and size of battery which will give optimum performance.
  2. Battery Compartment
    1. Battery compartments should be easily accessible. Design compartments so that batteries are easily inserted and do not fall out. The dimensions and design of compartments and contacts should be such that batteries complying with this standard will be accepted. In particular, the equipment designer should not ignore the tolerances given in this standard, even if a national standard or a battery manufacturer calls for smaller battery tolerances.
    2. The design of the negative contact should make allowance for any recess of the battery terminal.
    3. Equipment intended for use by children should have battery compartments which are tamper-proof.
    4. Clearly indicate the type of battery to use, the correct polarity alignment and directions for insertion.
    5. Use the shape and/or the dimensions of the positive⊕and negative ⊖battery terminals in compartment designs to prevent the reverse connection of batteries. Positive ⊕and negative ⊖battery contacts should be visibly different in form to avoid confusion when inserting batteries.
    6. Battery compartments should be electrically insulated from the electric circuit and positioned so as to minimize possible damage and/or risk of injury. Only the battery terminals should physically contact the electric circuit. Care should be taken in the choice of materials and the design of contacts to ensure that effective electrical contact is made and maintained under conditions of use even with batteries at the extremes of dimensions permitted by this standard. Battery and equipment terminals should be of compatible material and low electrical resistance.
    7. Battery compartments with parallel connections are not recommended since a wrongly placed battery will result in charging conditions.
    8. Although batteries are very much improved regarding their resistance to leakage, it can still occur occasionally. When the battery compartment cannot be completely isolated from the equipment, it should be positioned so as to minimize possible damage.
    9. The battery compartment shall be clearly and permanently marked to show the correct orientation of the batteries. The reversed placement of one battery in a set, which may result in battery leakage and/or explosion and/or fire. To minimize this hazard, battery compartments should be designed so that a reversed battery will result in no electrical circuit.
    10. The associated circuitry should not make physical contact with any part of the battery except at the surfaces intended for this purpose.
    11. Designers are strongly advised to refer to IEC 60086-5 for comprehensive safety considerations.
  3. Voltage cut-off
    In order to prevent leakage resulting from a battery being driven into reverse, the equipment voltage cut-off shall not be below the battery manufacturers' recommendation.